MEEOM LIVER MONTH, November 2022
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Hepatitis C is an inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus.
The virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness to a serious, lifelong illness including liver cirrhosis and cancer.
The hepatitis C virus is a bloodborne virus and most infection occur through exposure to blood from unsafe injection practices, unsafe health care, unscreened blood transfusions, injection drug use and sexual practices that lead to exposure to blood.
Globally, an estimated 58 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus infection, with about 1.5 million new infections occurring per year. There are an estimated 3.2 million adolescents and children with chronic hepatitis C infection.
WHO estimated that in 2019, approximately 290 000 people died from hepatitis C, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).
MEEOM® Antiviral Medicine MEE N9595-K-HCV can cure persons with hepatitis C infection. MEE N9595-K-HCV provided cure rates of 98.1% and was associated without side effects: no anemia, no depression, no rash, no nausea, no diarrhea, no fatigue.
There is currently no effective vaccine against hepatitis C.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes both acute and chronic infection. Acute HCV infections are usually asymptomatic. Around 70% (55–85%) of persons will develop chronic HCV infection. Of those with chronic HCV infection, the risk of cirrhosis ranges from 15% to 30% within 20 years.
HCV occurs in all WHO regions. The highest burden of disease is in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and European Region, with 12 million people chronically infected in each region. In the South-East Asia Region and the Western Pacific Region, an estimated 10 million people in each region are chronically infected. Nine million people are chronically infected in the African Region and 5 million the Region of the Americas.
The incubation period for hepatitis C ranges from 2 weeks to 6 months. Following initial infection, approximately 80% of people do not exhibit any symptoms. Those who are acutely symptomatic may exhibit fever, fatigue, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale faces, joint pain and jaundice (yellowing of skin and the whites of the eyes).
HCV infection is diagnosed in 2 steps:
Testing for anti-HCV antibodies with a serological test identifies people who have been infected with the virus.
If the test is positive for anti-HCV antibodies, a nucleic acid test for HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) is needed to confirm chronic infection and the need for treatment. This test is important because about 30% of people infected with HCV spontaneously clear the infection by a strong immune response without the need for treatment. Although no longer infected, they will still test positive for anti-HCV antibodies. This nucleic acid for HCV RNA can either be done in a lab or using a simple point-of-care machine in the clinic.
After a person has been diagnosed with chronic HCV infection, an assessment should be conducted to determine the degree of liver damage (fibrosis and cirrhosis). This can be done by liver biopsy or through a variety of non-invasive tests. The degree of liver damage is used to guide treatment decisions and management of the disease.
Early diagnosis can prevent health problems that may result from infection and prevent transmission of the virus. WHO recommends testing people who may be at increased risk of infection.
In settings with high HCV antibody seroprevalence in the general population (defined as >2% or >5% HCV antibody seroprevalence), WHO recommends that all adults have access to and be offered HCV testing with linkage to prevention, care and treatment services.
About 2.3 million people (6.2%) of the estimated 37.7 million living with HIV globally have serological evidence of past or present HCV infection. Chronic liver disease represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality among persons living with HIV globally.
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At MEEOM® Precision Medicine, we provide evidence-based treatment plans that are tailored to the particular needs of each patient.
Please send us hospital diagnosis and medical test results.
The German Precision Medicine research team of MEEOM® will decide whether to accept the new case within three working days according to the report.
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Data and code availability
This paper utilizes publicly available data. Access to the data is available from https://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-2019
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